1. What do we mean by network architecture? 
  2. What are the most widely used architectures in computer networks?
  3. What is a protocol and why is it needed?
  4. What is a network protocol and what does it contain?
  5. What are the significance and the role of a protocol in network architecture?

Network architecture encompasses the design and layout of a computer network, including both physical and logical components and how they interact with one another. The most commonly employed architectures in computer networks are client-server and peer-to-peer. The client-server architecture includes one or more central servers that provide services to multiple clients, while in a peer-to-peer architecture each device on the network functions as both a client and server. Protocols are a set of guidelines and rules that regulate communication between devices on a network, which are necessary to ensure devices can communicate effectively and efficiently and prevent conflicts and errors. Network protocols include rules and guidelines for transmitting data over a network, including the format of the data, how it’s broken into packets, and the routing of packets through the network. Protocols play a vital role in network architecture, as they are the foundation of network communication and without them, data would not be able to flow between devices. They permit devices to communicate with each other, regardless of hardware or software and ensure that data is transmitted accurately and efficiently. Additionally, a good protocol allows for easy scalability and troubleshooting of the network. In conclusion, protocols are necessary for smooth communication and coordination within a network, without them it would be impossible to transmit data between devices, they are the backbone of network communication, ensuring accurate and efficient data transmission and enabling communication between devices regardless of hardware or software.